# FLUID MECHANICS AND PIPE HYDRAULICS - 2018/9

Module code: ENG1073

Module Overview

FLUID MECHANICS: The basic concepts underlying fluid flows and behaviour are described together with simple fluid properties. The calculation of static fluid forces is the starting point before moving to dynamic fluid effects including mass-flow and energy conservation. Internal flows in pipes considering effects of fluid friction, momentum and energy losses in fittings. This will include a brief description of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes.

PIPE HYDRAULICS: Pipe flow and the associated energy losses in pipe fixtures and fittings are studied. The laws governing pipe flow are explained and then applied to basic pipe flow applications. The work is extended to cover more advanced pipe networks and reservoir problems.  Unsteady flows are introduced and applied to pipe systems through the phenomena of pipe surge and water hammer.

LABS: The principles described above will be reinforced by practical applications in the laboratory. The labs will cover the effects of pipe surge and water hammer ⇒ 2 related but independent phenomena which arise when pipe flow adjustments are made.  In addition, students will attend a short lab session investigating Bernoulli’s theorem or orifice and free jet flow.

Module provider

Civil and Environmental Engineering

HUGHES Susan (Civl Env Eng)

Number of Credits: 15

ECTS Credits: 7.5

Framework: FHEQ Level 4

JACs code: H141

Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A

Module Availability

Semester 1

Prerequisites / Co-requisites

Normal entry requirements for the degree programme in Civil Engineering.

Module content

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid properties

Hydrostatics (forces on surfaces, submerged bodies, valves, gates etc)

Buoyancy (stability of submerged and floating bodies; bubbles and particles)

Fluid kinematics (streamlines and continuity)

Fluid dynamics (Bernoulli’s equation, flow through orifices and venturi meters)

Momentum equation (impacting jets, forces on pipe bend, sudden expansion)

Viscous (laminar flow, Poiseuille flow in a pipe)

Pipe Flow

Introduction to pipe flow, Reynold’s number and Darcy’s Equation

Friction and Energy losses  in pipes

Basic and advanced pipe flow networks and reservoir problems.

Introduction to unsteady flows, pipe surge and water hammer

Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
Examination EXAMINATION (2 hours) 75
Practical based assessment LABORATORY REPORTS AND PIPE NETWORK TEST 25

Alternative Assessment

Alternative assessments for laboratory reports and pipe network test will be coursework assignments.

Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate:

• Explain the basic concepts in fluid mechanics.

• Explain the theoretical and practical aspects of the different types of pipe flow.

• Demonstrate analytical skills in calculating the flow characteristics including friction and energy losses in pipes, junctions and reservoirs.

• Demonstrate numerical skills in solving fluid behaviour in pipe networks.

• Demonstrate practical skills in fluid mechanics applications namely orifice and free jet flows, Bernoulli’s theorem and unsteady flows (for example, pipe surge and water hammer)

Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

• Examination - [LO’s 1,2,3,4,5,6] (b,c,f,g,h)] {2 hours, 75%}

• Coursework:

2 Laboratory reports – [LO’s 3,4,6] (a,b,c,d,e) {18 hours, 10%+5%}

Pipe network class test  – [LO’s 3,4,6] (b,f,g,h) {15 hours, 10%}

Formative assessment and feedback

Formative assessment and feedback is provided via the weekly supported tutorial work

(11 hours).  Where appropriate, tutor support comment and feedback will be given in the tutorial sessions and lectures. Students will receive written feedback on the laboratory work and pipe network test.

Module aims

• a knowledge of basic fluid properties
• an understanding of principles of fluid hydrostatics and simple fluid dynamics
• a knowledge of basic assumptions underlying mass flow and energy balances
• a comprehensive understanding of the flow mechanisms associated with pipe flows
• a knowledge of the theory and equations applicable to steady flow through pipes
• a knowledge of pipe networks and the methods used to determine the flow through the network
• an introduction to unsteady flows, pipe surge and water hammer
• experience of laboratory work practicals associated with pipe surge, water hammer, Bernoulli's theorem / orifice and free jet flow

Learning outcomes

Attributes Developed
001 Upon successful completion of the module, students will be able to: Calculate hydrostatic pressure forces on submerged surfaces; KCT
002 Calculate effects of laminar viscosity; KCT
003 Explain the origin of momentum forces in flowing systems and be able to evaluate forces and energy losses; KCT
004 Calculate flows through pipes and pipe networks and understand the methods used to determine these flows; KCPT
005 Perform basic calculations using the Bernoulli Equation and the Steady Flow Energy Equation; KCT
006 Calculate losses and surge in pipes. KCPT
007 Transferable Skills developed and included in units of assessment: Oral and written communication; T
008 Synthesis of data; T
009 Graphical presentation of data; T
010 Use of word processer, spreadsheet, drawing/presentation; T
011 Technical writing; T
012 Information retrieval skills; T
013 Independent learning skills; T
014 Reviewing, assessing, and critical thinking skills. T

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

Independent Study Hours: 109

Lecture Hours: 24

Tutorial Hours: 11

Laboratory Hours: 6

Methods of Teaching / Learning

This module provides students with an introduction to basic theoretical fluid mechanics with an extended knowledge of pipe flow. The learning experience is enhanced with practical experience and an understanding of unsteady flows in pipes.

The module is delivered principally by lectures and supported by tutorials and laboratory classes which include orifice and free jet flows, Bernoulli’s theorem and unsteady flows.

Learning and teaching methods :

The module is delivered by weekly lectures supported by tutorial and laboratory classes (smaller groups) in the two main components. It includes (hours are indicative):

• 22 hours lectures,

• 11 hours tutorials,

• 2 hours revision classes

• 6 hours laboratory classes

Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.