FROM ATOMS TO LASERS - 2018/9
Module code: PHY2062
This module will build on the rudimentary knowledge of Atoms and Quanta taught in Level FHEQ 4 (PHY1039) and apply the ideas taught in the previous Quantum Physics module (PHY2069) to describe the properties of atoms, including the physics behind the full structure of atomic spectra. It will introduce the effects on atoms due to electric and magnetic fields. The physics of diatomic molecules will be discussed, including how spectroscopic techniques can be used to study more complex molecules. Finally by understanding how atoms interact with light, the module will introduce the principles of the laser, including basic explanations of common lasers, such as the argon ion and He:Ne lasers.
The module includes a laboratory component in which ideas from the lectures will be explored experimentally.
CLOWES SK Dr (Physics)
Number of Credits: 15
ECTS Credits: 7.5
Framework: FHEQ Level 5
JACs code: F300
Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A
Principles of Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model.
Hydrogen like atoms, Rydberg atoms & hydrogren like atoms in the solid state.
Lifting of the orbitak degeneracy in alkali atoms.
Orbital and spin magnetic moments.
Fine structure and spin-orbit coupling, Lamb shift.
Atoms in magnetic fields – electron spin resonance, ordinary Zeeman effect, anomalous Zeeman effect, Lande g-factor, Paschen Back effect
Atoms in electric fields – the Stark effect
Einstein coeffiecients, Einstein’s derivation of Planck’s formula, Kircoff’s relation
Lifetimes, oscillator strength, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening
Selection rules, matrix elements and symmetry
Multielectron atoms, the helium atom
The exchange (spin-spin) interaction
Structure of the periodic table
Ground state of multi-electron atoms,Hund’s rules
Nuclear spin and magnetic moment, hyperfine interaction, quantum numbers F and I
Brief overview of diatomic molecules, Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, vivrational and rotational molecular transitions, Raman scattering and IR spectroscopy
The laser, basic concepts, rate equations and lasing conditions, operation of types of lasers (ruby, He:Ne: molecular, dye, and semiconductor), laser linewidths, cavity modes and saturation spectroscopy
The laboratory component of the course includes experiments from: Fine structure, Optical pumping of Rb, Precession, Semiconductor Lasers and resolving power.
|Assessment type||Unit of assessment||Weighting|
|Practical based assessment||LABORATORY DIARY AND REPORT/PRESENTATION||30|
|School-timetabled exam/test||IN SEMESTER TEST (MULTIPLE CHOICE) (40 MINS)||10|
The laboratory Diary and Report/Presentation Mark may be assessed by a condensed programme of laboratory work, with written laboratory report/presentation.
The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate
their practical laboratory skills, their abilities to analyse data and draw conclusions from it, their skills in communicating scientific information, their problem-solving abilities, and their understanding of fundamental concepts and theory relating to all forms of matter.
Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:
1.5h end of semester examination, with 2 questions out of 3 to be answered
A mid semester multiple choice test
Laboratory diaries (every 2 weeks)
Laboratory poster presentation or short report
Formative assessment and feedback
The module includes approx. “Poll Everywhere” is used to employ peer leaning tecnhiques during lectures,providing instant feedback. Problems questions are provided each week and verbal feedback is provided by the discussion of these problems in tutorial sessions. Formative feedback provided on mid-semester test. Students are interviewed by an academic after each laboratory experiment providing both verbal and written feedback on their lab diaries.
- develop an understanding of the limitations of the Bohr model and develop the concepts that relates the atom's angular momentum with its optical and magnetic properties. The interactions within the atom will be discussed, as well as the effect on it due to external influences. These concepts will be developed further to include inter-atomic interactions and molecular spectroscopy. Finally, the module will introduce the laser and discuss the fundamental principles of its operation and applications.
|1||Identify the origin of the structure of atomic spectra and explain the associated interactions which give rise to this structure.||K|
|2||Describe the angular momentum of atoms and how it relates to their optical and magnetic properties||K|
|3||Distinguish between effects of magnetic and electric fields on atoms||KC|
|4||Determine the ground state of multi-electron atoms and explain the interaction governing this.||KC|
|5||Apply their knowledge of diatomic molecules to perform simple analysis of spectroscopic data.||KC|
|6||Describe the basic operation a laser and the conditions for lasing||K|
|7||Compare the properties of various laser types||KC|
|8||Demonstrate ability at related experimental techniques||P|
C - Cognitive/analytical
K - Subject knowledge
T - Transferable skills
P - Professional/Practical skills
Overall student workload
Independent Study Hours: 84
Lecture Hours: 22
Tutorial Hours: 11
Laboratory Hours: 20
Methods of Teaching / Learning
The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:
equip students with subject knowledge
develop skills in applying subject knowledge to physical situations
enable students to tackle unseen problems in atomic and laser physics
develop students' practical skills
develop students' report-writing skills
The learning and teaching methods include:
33h of lectures and tutorials as 3h/week over 11 weeks.The lectures and tutorials involve use of an electronic voting system
20h of laboratory work distributed through the semester
Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.
Programmes this module appears in
|Physics with Quantum Technologies MPhys||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Nuclear Astrophysics MPhys||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Astronomy MPhys||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Nuclear Astrophysics BSc (Hons)||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Astronomy BSc (Hons)||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics MPhys||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics BSc (Hons)||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Liberal Arts and Sciences BA (Hons)/BSc (Hons)||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Quantum Technologies BSc (Hons)||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module|
Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2018/9 academic year.