# AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES & AEROELASTICITY - 2022/3

Module code: ENG2096

## Module Overview

Second year module for BEng and MEng aerospace engineering students.

A lecture and tutorial based module giving understanding of aircraft structures, aircraft aerodynamic loads and aeroelasticity. This builds on previous general modules on materials stress analysis and the module on aerodynamics and flight mechanics, providing the student with knowledge and understanding in each of these areas directly applicable to aircraft structures. It complements this knowledge with an introduction to fluid-structure interaction, presenting fundamental loads and aeroelastic effects that arise on aircraft structures.

### Module provider

Mechanical Engineering Sciences

MARQUES Simao (Mech Eng Sci)

## Overall student workload

Independent Learning Hours: 106

Lecture Hours: 11

Tutorial Hours: 11

Captured Content: 22

Semester 2

## Module content

Indicative content includes:

• Aircraft Structures[15hrs]

• Introduction to aircraft materials and structures

• Stiffened shell idealisation: direct stress booms and shear stress skins

• Bending in boom-idealised wing and fuselage sections

• Shear in thin-walled beam sections

• Shear in boom-idealised sections

• Aerodynamic Loads and Aeroelasticity [18 hrs]

• Review of single degree of freedom equation of motion

• Introduction to generalised equations of motion for systems of multiple degrees of freedom; eigenvalue solution; aircraft mode shapes

• Idealised aircraft structural dynamics models

• Introduction to aerodynamic loads and the aeroelastic triangle

• Steady manoeuvres, V-n diagrams, load factor

• Wing load distributions and structural implications

• Static aeroelasticity; divergence and control reversal

• Gust response: sudden vertical and longitudinal gusts

• Dynamic aeroelasticity: introduction to flutter

## Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
Examination Online EXAM (2 hours) 100

N/A

## Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate

• they can describe aspects of typical aircraft structures and hence the rationale for their idealisation

• they can analyse simplified aircraft structures through hand calculations

• they can calculate shear flow distributions in thin-walled beam sections

• they can describe the implications of fluid-structure interaction on aircraft analysis and design (final examination)

• they can perform basic aerodynamic loads-related and aeroelastic hand calculations on simplified examples

Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

• Examination [Learning outcomes 1-6]          (2 hours)        {100%}

Formative assessment and feedback

• Formative assessment - practice exam style questions - peer marked

• Formative verbal feedback is given in lectures (group) and tutorials (individual)

• Written feedback is given on the coursework (individual)

## Module aims

• an introduction to typical materials and features of (principally fixed-wing) aircraft structures and methods of stress analysis based on hand calculations
• an understanding of the interaction between aerodynamic loads and structural deformations, as well as an introduction to the most important aeroelastic effects on aircraft

## Learning outcomes

 Ref Attributes Developed 001 Describe typical features of aircraft structures; K C4 002 Calculate shear stresses / shear flow distributions in thin walled simplified (boom-idealised wing and fuselage structures / non-idealised beam sections ; KC C1 003 Recognise physical phenomena associated with aircraft structural dynamics; KC C2 004 Identify and define key concepts related to structural dynamics, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, structural damping and vibration characteristics of a/c structures KC C2 005 Formulate the equation of motion for the dynamic analysis of multiple degrees of freedom systems. KC C1 006 Understand basic static and dynamic aeroelastic problems, divergence, control reversal and flutter. KC C1,C2

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

## Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:

Introduce aircraft structures, materials and aeroelasticity principles through theory and worked examples. This is delivered through lectures and tutorial classes.

The learning and teaching methods include:

• 2 hours captured content x 11 weeks

• 1 hour lecture x 11 weeks

• 1 hour tutorial (in groups) x 11 weeks

Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.