ADVANCES IN NANOPHOTONICS - 2022/3
Module code: PHYM061
In light of the Covid-19 pandemic, and in a departure from previous academic years and previously published information, the University has had to change the delivery (and in some cases the content) of its programmes, together with certain University services and facilities for the academic year 2020/21.
These changes include the implementation of a hybrid teaching approach during 2020/21. Detailed information on all changes is available at: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/coronavirus/course-changes. This webpage sets out information relating to general University changes, and will also direct you to consider additional specific information relating to your chosen programme.
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The module addresses the advanced physics and technology of photonic nanostructures, where photons and/or electrons are spatially confined to dimensions comparable to or smaller than their wavelength. The propagation of the light and its interaction with matter are determined by factors such as length scales, periodicity, and dimensionality, and lead to phenomena not observed in nature. This is a rapidly developing field where fundamental science and technological advance hand-in-hand, and the module aims to demonstrate how new science drives new technologies that have a significant impact on society, for example through energy production, communications, and healthcare.
FLORESCU Marian (Physics)
Number of Credits: 15
ECTS Credits: 7.5
Framework: FHEQ Level 7
JACs code: F390
Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A
Prerequisites / Co-requisites
Indicative content includes:
A. Introduction and Review
What is photonics? What is nanotechnology?
Description of module: organisation, teaching methods, assessment
A look ahead: nanophotonics and the quantum playground
2. Brief review of physics of photons and electrons
These review lectures briefly summarize the minimum background in Electromagnetism (EM) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) required for this module. They also introduce concepts, methodology and nomenclature to be followed in the module.
Wave equations: propagation, dispersion, velocities, impedance
Interfaces, barriers and tunnelling
Confinement: total internal reflection, standing waves, waveguides and resonant cavities
Materials: dielectrics, metals, and semiconductors
EM waves: Maxwell’s equations and EM wave equation, in dielectrics and metals
Electron waves and Schrödinger equation
Semi-classical interaction of light and atoms
Light emission and lasers
3. Introduction to optical resonators and micro-cavities
Light emission and lasers
Losses and Quality (Q) factor of a resonator
- Finesse, re-spectral range, and mode volume
- Fabry-Perot resonators
- 'Whispering gallery' micro cavities (disks, rings, spheres, tori)
4. Waves in periodic media
- Electromagnetic propagation in periodic media: Floquet (Bloch) theorem, Bloch waves, and band structure
- Analytical solution of wave equation in linear non-dispersive periodic medium
Distributed Bragg Reflectors, bandgaps and minibands
Overview of computational methods: Fourier methods, Transfer Matrix, FDTD
Electron waves in semiconductors, heterostructures and super lattices
B. Light in Nanostructures
5. Photonic crystals
Photonics crystals and photonic bandgaps (PBG) in periodic, quasiperiodic and disordered dielectric structures
Dispersion of 1D photonic crystal
Natural and man-made photonic crystals; from butterfly wings to “holey fibres”
2D and 3D PBGs
Defects, cavities and photonic crystal resonators
PBGs for functional photonic components
Dispersion control and ‘slow light’
6. Meta materials and negative refraction
Conditions for negative refraction
Consequences for refraction and Doppler shift
Materials and structures for negative refraction
Scaling of operation frequency with size
An application (selected from: superlens, invisibility cloak, trapped light)
Meta materials and negative refraction
Bulk and surface plasmons: derivation of dispersion relation
Plasmons in nanoparticles: resonance and field enhancement
Applications: from solar cells to cancer therapy
C. Electrons in Nanostructures
8. Low-dimensional semiconductors
Density of states, dimensionality and quantum electronics
Nanostructures as ‘artificial atoms’
Excitons and Stark shifts
9. Application to Photovoltaics
Principles (not details) of applying concepts from nanophotonics to improve efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells
10. Nanophotonics for Quantum Optics
Second quantisation approach to light-matter interactions
Nanophotonic structures for coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics
11. Research exercise on latest developments in an advanced topic in nanophotonics. Indicative examples:
Quantum dots as artificial atoms
Coupled microcavity rays
Nonlinear ptics(e.g., aan lasers)
Single and ntangled poton sourcs
Single toquantumdot laser
Engineering optimisation and manufacturability of advanced laser structures
|Assessment type||Unit of assessment||Weighting|
|Coursework||COURSEWORK (GROUP-BASED PROJECT)||30|
Alternative Assessment: Where an alternative assessment is needed for an individual student, a suitably scaled individual research/design project will be offered, and assessed by means of an individually authored technical report, representing 30% of the module mark. It will not be possible to achieve the learning outcomes related to group research and oral presentation.
The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate:
(1) technical knowledge and understanding of the core principles of nanophotonics, and
(2) understanding of an advanced aspect of nanophotonics achieved through a research exercise, and
(3) skills in group working and technical reporting.
Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:
final exam on core principles of nanophotonics (2 hours)
group-authored technical report (6 pages max) on advanced nanophotonics
individual oral presentation (7 mins max)
Due to their nature, part of the coursework (oral presentation and contribution to group effort) will not be anonymously marked.
Formative assessment and feedback
Problem sheets on the material delivered in lectures will be available, with follow-up tutorials, which allow the students to test their understanding of course material. Model answers and verbal feedback are provided to allow the students to assess their progress. For the coursework, a brief progress report and completion plan, and a dissemination plan, are due 3 and 1 weeks respectively before the submission deadline, each followed by in-class feedback to each group.
- provide students with an overview of photonics and nanotechnology, sufficient to enter technical employment or pursue further research in these fields.
- expose students to examples of latest developments in a fast-moving field.
- provide practice in the application of known physical concepts and mathematical techniques to new situations.
- provide practice in applying research methodologies to an unfamiliar field
- improve professional skills in group working and technical reporting.
|001||Recognize the main optical and electrical properties of metals, dielectrics and semiconductors that determine their use in nanophotonics||K|
|002||Identify similarities and differences between the propagation of light and electron waves in materials with reference to Maxwell’s and Schrodinger’s equations||KC|
|003||Describe how photon and electron confinement is achieved in nanostructured materials||K|
|004||Explain the origin of five principal classes of nanophotonic phenomena and structures||K|
|005||A. photonic bandgaps in photonic crystals||K|
|006||B. plasmons in metals, at metal-dielectric interfaces and in nano-particles,||K|
|007||C. quantum confinement and excitons in low-dimensional semiconductors,||K|
|008||D. polaritons in an optical cavity, and||K|
|009||E. negative refraction in metamaterials.||K|
|010||Analyse the influence of size, dimensionality, inhomogeneity, periodicity and anisotropy in these phenomena||C|
|011||Recognise graphs of the dispersion relations associated with nanophotonic phenomena and identify the main features||C|
|012||Evaluate the dispersion in specified examples of nanophotonic structures including use of appropriate approximations||C|
|013||Appreciate that a quantum treatment of light is essential for the understanding of important phenomena (e.g. nonlinear optics, entanglement) in nanophotonics||K|
|014||Employ research methodologies to investigate an advanced aspect of nanophotonics||CPT|
|015||Work in a small group towards a common research goal||PT|
|016||Present research outcomes in a co-authored written report and oral presentation||PT|
C - Cognitive/analytical
K - Subject knowledge
T - Transferable skills
P - Professional/Practical skills
Overall student workload
Workshop Hours: 3
Independent Study Hours: 107
Lecture Hours: 22
Tutorial Hours: 18
Methods of Teaching / Learning
The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:
deliver core material in a familiar format of traditional lectures, supported by occcasional tutorials and students’ reading;
incorporate a synoptic element: integrating understanding gained in compulsory modules on electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and solid-state physics, and refreshing some key physical concepts in preparation for employment or further studies after graduation;
provide a taste of R&D perfomed in a small group, in preparation for environments likely to be encountered post-graduation;
provide an experience of written and oral presentation of technical material, typical of what might be required in technical employment or postgraduate research.
The learning and teaching methods include:
3 hours lectures/tutorials per week, including:
7 hours supervised group work (1 hour foundation plus 2 hours per week x3)
monitoring group progress (with intervention where required) on SurreyLearn discussion boards
Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.
Upon accessing the reading list, please search for the module using the module code: PHYM061
Programmes this module appears in
|Physics with Nuclear Astrophysics MPhys||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
|Electronic Engineering with Nanotechnology MEng||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Astronomy MPhys||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
|Physics with Quantum Technologies MPhys||2||Compulsory||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
|Physics MPhys||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
|Nanotechnology and Renewable Energy MSc||2||Optional||A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module|
Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2022/3 academic year.