Module code: VMS2009

Module Overview

This module introduces the student to general mechanisms of pathology including gross and microscopic changes associated with infectious and non-infectious causes in various species. This will be presented in context with clinical correlates and One Health.
Moreover, this module introduces the students to the general principles of infectious disease and its pathology as well as the immune system and the host response to pathogen infection. The cellular and tissue changes induced by infection with viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi and prions will be introduced. These topics will be presented in the context of One Health and underpinned with clinical case examples introducing clinical pathology results from the various veterinary species.

Module provider

School of Veterinary Medicine

Module Leader

MARSTON Denise (Vet Med)

Number of Credits: 15

ECTS Credits: 7.5

Framework: FHEQ Level 5

Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A

Overall student workload

Independent Learning Hours: 92

Lecture Hours: 43

Practical/Performance Hours: 15

Module Availability

Semester 1

Prerequisites / Co-requisites

Successful completion of all BVMSci first year units

Module content

Lectures Part A Pathology Introduction to pathology and its position at the core of understanding clinical medicine and the commonality of processes across species. History of the discipline. Classification of disease processes – infectious and non-infectious Cell adaptions to stress and injury, cell degeneration, death and repair. Pathological cell and tissue accumulations Inflammation: acute and chronic, chemical mediators, inflammatory cells, tissue responses to inflammation and wound healing Immunopathology – immunodeficiency, hypersensitivity, immune mediated and autoimmune disorders. Developmental and genetic pathology Neoplasia. Mechanisms of malignant transformation. Categorisation of neoplasms. Invasion and metastasis. Grading and staging. Paraneoplastic syndromes Haemodynamic and circulatory disorders – hyperaemia, congestion, haemorrhages, oedema, thrombosis, embolism, ischaemia, infarction and shock Infectious disease – overview of categories of infectious causes and their mechanisms of disease Environmental and nutritional pathology – toxicosis, radiation, thermal, electrical, vitamin and minerals, obesity etc. Basic post mortem technique and gross pathology description and terminology Part B Infectious Disease Infectious Pathogens: General introduction. The epidemiological triad of infection. Invasion and infection. Pathogenesis of infectious agents. General aspects Bacteria. Major bacterial groups and phenotypical differences Bacteria and the alimentary system – commensals versus pathogens Bacterial genetics and virulence factors Bacterial pathogenesis: colonisation and tissue invasion Anti-microbial resistance Viruses- Taxonomy and genetics. Unique structures of infectious pathogens – Bacterial LPS, Peptidoglycans, bacterial DNA, Viral Nucleic Acid etc Parasites. Taxonomy, life cycles and management of the environment of Nematodes, Cestodes, Trematodes, Protozoa, Ectoparasites Invasion to where and by what route? Extracellular and Intracellular pathogens Cells and tissues of the immune and haematopoetic system 1st line of defence: Innate Immunity- recognising Invaders (PAMPs/ DAMPs and pattern-recognition receptors) 1st line of defence: Innate Immunity – key cells, phagocytosis and the complement system Immunological cell signals: Cytokines and their receptors Antigens and MHC complex Adaptive immune response: T-cells and antigen recognition (TCR) Antigen presenting cells – bridging the innate and adaptive immune response T-cell subsets and function and the difference in animal species Antibody structure and function B-cells – antigen recognition and antibody production The orchestra of T-cell and B-cell activation Regulation of adaptive Immune responses Immune responses to bacteria, fungi, helminths and viruses Vaccination principals Practicals Part A Pathology Histopathology practicals – cell damage and response to injury – normal to abnormal Descriptive pathology (gross) – terminology, methods of image capture, recording findings Perform a post mortem examination Basic cytological examination Computer-based lab assessment based on above skills Part B Infectious Disease Collecting appropriate samples to detect infectious pathogens Bacterial culture and identification – gram stains, various light microscopy techniques, dark field Virus culture and identification Identifying ectoparasites – gross specimen demonstration and life cycle charts Identifying endoparasites – gross specimen demonstration and life cycle charts Identification and quantification of parasites through faecal examination Anti-microbial resistance and LAMP Immunoassays and ELISAs

Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting

Alternative Assessment


Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate content knowledge of general pathology and disease mechanisms. Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of one content knowledge examination worth 100% of the marks for this module. The examination will consist of MCQs and SAQs, some of which will include images. This is a compulsory module (students are required to achieve a 50% pass mark overall to pass the module).

Module aims

  • • Introduce the fundamental principles of pathology and how these disease mechanisms manifest clinically through examples of gross and microscopic lesions.
  • • Enable the students to recognise, describe and record pathological changes and write meaningful descriptions using appropriate terminology
  • • Introduces the terminology of infectious disease, the broad categories of infectious agents, systemic pathology based on aetiopathogenesis, and gross and microscopic appearance of lesions induced by pathogens and the host response.
  • • Increase the students’ ability to describe pathological findings and write meaningful reports using the appropriate methods and terminology

Learning outcomes

Attributes Developed
001 Describe the basic mechanisms of disease and apply acquired foundation knowledge KCT
002 Understand and describe the causes, development, consequences of disease (including infectious disease), and the immune system¿s role in mediating or exacerbating disease by utilising knowledge of the following pathogenic mechanisms: injury, adaptation, inflammation, repair, disorders of growth (including neoplasia), and their physiologic correlates. KCT
003 Perform a necropsy and understand how to identify common incidental findings during a necropsy and be able to recognise them in images or other media; and how to recognise abnormal gross findings (lesions) on tissues, images or other media. RCVS 36, 45 KCPT
004 Describe basic gross, microscopic and cytological lesions using appropriate veterinary medical terminology. RCVS 17, 20 KPT
005 Describe relevant sampling methods appropriate to detecting infectious agents and have an opportunity to perform a range of these methods. RCVS 31 KCPT
006 Understand the commonality of the disease process (including infectious disease) across species including concepts of One Health, One Medicine, antimicrobial resistance, and microbial diversity. RCVS 23, 39, 44 KCPT
007 Understand the basic differences between parasitic, fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens including replication/life cycles, impact on host and global impact as appropriate. RCVS 23, 38 KCPT

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to: • Provide pathology in the context of One health, One medicine • Provide infectious disease pathology in the context of One health, One medicine • Allow students to develop skills in performing a systematic post mortem examination and identify lesions induced by infectious agents • Provide students with the skills to write a meaningful post mortem report and record their findings with appropriate terminology and supporting images • Provide students with the skills to describe and record their findings with appropriate images • Allow students to understand the cellular and tissue changes related to gross pathology findings The learning and teaching methods include: • Lectures, flipped classroom, small group sessions, practical classes using microscopy and anatomic pathologic specimens, online discussion forum

Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.

Reading list
Upon accessing the reading list, please search for the module using the module code: VMS2009

Programmes this module appears in

Programme Semester Classification Qualifying conditions
Veterinary Medicine and Science BVMSci (Hons) 1 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module

Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2023/4 academic year.