# MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES - 2024/5

Module code: ENG1081

## Module Overview

The conservation of both Mass and Energy are fundamentals on which all Chemical Processing is based.  Being able to properly formulate and solve material and energy balances and in so doing integrate and interpret physical property data from different sources and in a variety of different units is an essential skills for an engineer.   The module covers the fundamental concept used when analysing the mass and energy flows in chemical processing and allows students to apply them to the analysis of a wide variety of real-world situations such as distillation and crystallisation processes that are commonly found in industrial manufacturing plants.

### Module provider

Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

LEE Judy (Chst Chm Eng)

### Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A

Independent Learning Hours: 62

Lecture Hours: 33

Tutorial Hours: 11

Guided Learning: 11

Captured Content: 33

Semester 1

None.

## Module content

Indicative content includes:

Background               Definitions of relevant quantities and properties.

Units, systems of units and unit conversion – Tutorial Sheet 1

Ideal Gas Laws          Ideal gases, Dalton’s and Amagat’s Laws, Ideal gas mixtures – Tutorial Sheet 2

Vapours                     Single component vapour-liquid-solid equilibrium, critical point, triple point

Saturated vapour pressure, Antoine equation

Raoult’s Law, saturation – Tutorial Sheet 3

Energy                        Energy changes associate with temperature and phase changes

Ideal component heat capacity, enthalpy and internal energy – Tutorial Sheet 4

Enthalpy of formation, reaction enthalpy, equilibrium  – Tutorial Sheet 5

Gibbs Phase Rule     Formulation and application

Material Balances (1)            Definition of system, Basis and formulation of overall and component balances, special equipment dependent balances

Basis and formulation of solution, independent equations and variables

Balances without phase change or reaction – Tutorial Sheet 6

Balances with phase change, and with phase change and reaction –  Tutorial Sheet 7

Fuel and Combustion Calculations            Fuel and combustion reactions, energy released (gross and net CV)

Fuel Calculations – Tutorial Sheet 8

Material Balances (2)            Recycle, purge and bypass and associated balances – Tutorial Sheet 9

Stream Enthalpy Calculations        Enthalpy datum, single phase and two phase streams, “Wise Students Guide to Stream Enthalpy Calculations” – Tutorial Sheet  10

Multiphase stream enthalpy calculations – Tutorial Sheet 11

Energy Balances       Steady state energy balances

Energy balances with and without phase change but without reaction

Energy balances with phase change and reaction – Tutorial Sheet 12

## Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
School-timetabled exam/test 90 min Invigilated Class Test 20
Examination 2 hr Invigilated Exam 80

None

## Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate the full range of learning outcomes through the balanced mixture of lecture and tutorial/problem classes coupled with the carefully grades tutorial problems which reflect current industrial practice.

Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

• Class Test – 20%, material covered is the first 5 sections of the module (LO1, LO2, LO3)

• Examination – 80%, 2 hours (LO1, LO2, LO3, LO4, LO5, LO6)

Formative assessment and feedback

Weekly verbal feedback will be given during tutorial classes.

Written feedback on the Class Test

## Module aims

• A systematic appreciation of the principles used to establish material and energy balances for chemical processes.
• An opportunity to extensively practice the techniques of solving material and energy balances in a supportive environment.

## Learning outcomes

 Attributes Developed 001 Recognise the foundations of different unitary systems and fluently convert quantities between them. KC 002 Explain the Ideal Gas laws and confidently analyse systems containing ideal gas mixtures C 003 Confidently use saturated vapour pressure data to analyse single component vapour-liquid equilibrium and using Raoult's Law and Gibbs Phase Rule extend this analysis to multicomponent liquid/gas/vapour systems KCP 004 Demonstrate an ability to formulate a solution to and then solve process material balances which may involve any combination of the following: reactions, multiple phases, multiple series or parallel process units, recycles/bypass/purge. KCT 005 Recognise the need for and be able to accurately calculate process energy balances. KC 006 To confidently integrate process material and energy balances for both reactive and non-reactive systems with and without phase change KCP

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

## Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:

• Carefully cover in lectures the necessary fundamental material and analytical techniques demonstrating each with appropriate examples

• Allow students adequate time to practice the techniques using a large number of carefully selected tutorial problems (NOTE – In order to become proficient in solving material and energy balances it is necessary that students devote sufficient time to properly solving all the tutorial problems presented.)

The learning and teaching methods include:

• Lectures

• Tutorial/Problem Classes

• Independent learning

Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.

Upon accessing the reading list, please search for the module using the module code: ENG1081

## Other information

The School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering is committed to developing graduates with strengths in Employability, Digital Capabilities, Global and Cultural Capabilities, Sustainability, and Resourcefulness and Resilience. This module is designed to allow students to develop knowledge, skills, and capabilities in the following areas

Digital Capabilities: Through the module student will learn to navigate and utilise Virtual learning Environment (Surrey Learn) and online databases to aid their learning.

Employability: This module enables students to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in the context of performing material and energy balances in chemical processing context.  These skills are critical when entering into industry as graduate engineers and are key transferrable skills sought by employers of all disciplines.

Global and Cultural Skills:  The module begins with an introduction on the importance of unit of measurements, the different units used globally in the past.  Students will build awareness and respect for different units used by different countries and understand the need on a scientific front, a globally agreed set of units known as International System of Units which now serves as the international standard used globally.  Students will work in small tutorial groups with other students from different backgrounds to solve problems and build solutions.

Resourcefulness and resilience: This module consist of weekly tutorial sheet problems with increasing degree of difficulty. Full solutions are not provided, and students are expected to develop their own set of solutions through the guidance provided during the weekly tutorials.  This will enable students to reflect and learn from their own performances and experiences in problem solving challenging questions, develop confidents, and decision-making abilities through their understand of the module theory and applying it to real world problems.

Sustainability: As a part of material balances students will learn about reactions that occur when fuel undergoes combustion with air and the flue gases that are produced such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Students will develop an awareness and understanding why these gases are produced and how to carry out simple calculations to determine the compositions in the flue gases.  These awareness, understanding and knowledge are necessary to ensure students become ethical, social and environmental responsible engineers when they graduate.

## Programmes this module appears in

Programme Semester Classification Qualifying conditions
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering BEng (Hons) 1 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering MEng 1 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module
Chemical Engineering BEng (Hons) 1 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module
Chemical Engineering MEng 1 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 40% is required to pass the module

Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2024/5 academic year.