FOUNDATIONS OF DISEASE FOUR - PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR, RESPIRATORY AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEMS - 2024/5

Module code: VMS2004

Module Overview

This module introduces the student to the pathology of the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems, including the infectious disease agents that affect these systems. Students will learn about the changes to the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems seen with disease or invasion by viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungal agents. These diseases will be presented in context of One Health and underpinned with clinical case examples from the various veterinary species.

Module provider

School of Veterinary Medicine

Module Leader

CONTADINI Francesca Marie (Vet Med)

Number of Credits: 15

ECTS Credits: 7.5

Framework: FHEQ Level 5

Module cap (Maximum number of students): N/A

Overall student workload

Independent Learning Hours: 76

Lecture Hours: 27

Tutorial Hours: 3

Practical/Performance Hours: 7

Guided Learning: 10

Captured Content: 27

Module Availability

Semester 2

Prerequisites / Co-requisites

None

Module content

Taught content


  • Pathology of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems – inflammatory, immune-mediated, toxic, inhalation injury, congenital disorders, degenerative

  • Pathology of the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems – neoplasia

  • Haemodynamic changes: haemorrhage, hyperaemia, congestion, infarct and oedema,

  • Pathology of shock

  • Congenital deformities of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

  • Pathology of cardiac failure, decompensation and ascites

  • Infectious pathogen transmission by aerosol and respiratory route

  • Examples of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Rhodococcus equi, Bacillus anthracis

  • Examples of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Mycobacterium spp.

  • Examples of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Pasteurellaceae

  • Examples of Mollicutes bacterial pathogens of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Mycoplasma spp.

  • Example of mycotic pathogens of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp.

  • Common parasites of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Helminths (companion animal), life cycle and environmental control

  • Common Parasites of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems: Helminths (large animals), life cycle and environmental control

  • Example of viral pathogens causing respiratory disease: Pathogenesis of Orthomyxoviridea (Influenza)

  • Example of viral pathogens causing respiratory disease: Pathogenesis of Arterivirus (PRRSV)

  • Example of viral pathogens causing respiratory disease: Pathogenesis of Paramyxoviridae

  • Example of viral pathogens causing respiratory disease: Pathogenesis of Herpesviridae

  • Host responses to injuries of the respiratory tract

  • Abnormalities of lung inflation and circulation (atelectasia, emphysema, congestion)

  • Pulmonary oedema, haemorrhage and embolism

  • Classification of pneumonias

  • Pathology of the musculoskeletal system: inflammatory, immune-mediated, toxins, envenomations, congenital disorders and disorders of growth, degenerative, nutritional disorders (hypovitaminosis D, hypovitaminosis C)

  • Pathology of the musculoskeletal systems: neoplasia

  • Parasites of the musculoskeletal system: inclusion cysts, Toxoplasma spp., Sarcocystis spp., Trichinella spp. and their effect on meat quality and public health

  • Orthopaedic infections: the septic joint, the bite wound, the iatrogenic infection. Culturing for microbes from wounds

  • Nutritional pathology, the pathobiochemistry of dietary imbalances: biochemical & nutritional basis of disease; the use of biochemical tests for screening, diagnosis and management



 

Practicals


  • Gross pathology and histopathology of the cardiovascular system: students will examine gross specimens, images, digital slides, angiography, echocardiographic images of valvular disorders, PDAs, real time MRIs of wall thickness disorders 

  • Gross pathology and histopathology of the respiratory system (upper airway, lung): students will examine gross specimens, images, digital slides and radiographs

  • Gross pathology and histopathology of the musculoskeletal system (bones, joints, muscles): students will examine images, digital slides, CTs, MRIs –specimens and images, ultrasound of tendons as a practical with tissue specimens 

  • Students will perform a post-mortem examination on a production animal


Assessment pattern

Assessment type Unit of assessment Weighting
Coursework PRACTICAL REPORT 10
Examination ONLINE CLOSED BOOK MCQ AND SAQ EXAM FIXED START TIME (2 HOURS) 90

Alternative Assessment

The alternative assessment for the for the practical report will involve the preparation of a reflective written report on an area related to the module.

Assessment Strategy

The assessment strategy is designed to provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate


  • Practical skills in performing a post mortem examination and examining, recognising, describing and interpreting pathological changes.

  • Record writing ability and understanding and use of terminology

  • Encourage teamwork and participation in group learning both in the practical sessions.

  • Content knowledge of general pathology and infectious and non-infectious disease mechanisms



Thus, the summative assessment for this module consists of:

Practical report – 10%

Content knowledge examination – 90%

Formative assessment and feedback

Formative example exam questions on SurreyLearn

Module aims

  • Introduce the terminology of systemic cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems pathology based on aetiopathogenesis, and gross and microscopic appearance of non-infectious, infectious and immune-mediated lesions.
  • Increase the students ability to recognise, describe and interpret the abnormal and write a meaningful report of findings using the appropriate methods to record findings and images.

Learning outcomes

Attributes Developed
Ref
001 Describe the basic mechanisms of infectious and non-infectious diseases and apply acquired foundation knowledge relevant to the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems KP RCVS 45. RCVS UK 1, UK 3, UK 5.
002 Understand what are the causes, development and consequences of infectious and non-infectious disease of the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems by using the principles of disease: injury, adaptation, inflammation, and repair  KPT RCVS 45. RCVS UK 1, UK 5.
003 Perform a necropsy and examine gross and microscopic pathological specimens, to identify common pathological findings affecting the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems and be able to describe lesions and interpret them using appropriate terminology and tools for collecting data   KCPT RCVS 36 AND 45.
004 Appreciate the commonality of the infectious and non-infectious disease process across species including concepts of One Health, One Medicine KCPT RCVS 45. RCVS UK 1, UK 5.
005 Appreciate the clinical pathological methods and tests used to distinguish disease of the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems KCPT RCVS 31, 37 45. RCVS UK 1.

Attributes Developed

C - Cognitive/analytical

K - Subject knowledge

T - Transferable skills

P - Professional/Practical skills

Methods of Teaching / Learning

The learning and teaching strategy is designed to:


  • Provide infectious and non-infectious disease pathology in the context of One health, One medicine

  • Allow students to develop skills in performing a post mortem examination, examining specimens, describing and interpreting them.

  • Provide students with the skills to record pathological findings using appropriate terminology



The learning and teaching methods include:

Lectures, flipped classroom, small group sessions, practical classes using microscopy and anatomic pathology specimens, images

Indicated Lecture Hours (which may also include seminars, tutorials, workshops and other contact time) are approximate and may include in-class tests where one or more of these are an assessment on the module. In-class tests are scheduled/organised separately to taught content and will be published on to student personal timetables, where they apply to taken modules, as soon as they are finalised by central administration. This will usually be after the initial publication of the teaching timetable for the relevant semester.

Reading list

https://readinglists.surrey.ac.uk
Upon accessing the reading list, please search for the module using the module code: VMS2004

Other information

The Surrey Framework consist of the attributes: employability, global and cultural capabilities, digital capabilities, sustainability and resourcefulness and resilience. This module includes the following key topics which further develop one or more of the attributes as indicated: 

  • Digital capabilities: Students will use digital aids to investigate the systems presented in this module. The lecture materials will be accessible online and PollEverywhere will be used during real-time teaching.
  • Employability: Students will develop the basis of their veterinary knowledge and important aspects of pathology in this module. The practical sessions will additionally provide hands-on experience.
  • Global and cultural capabilities: many of the diseases discussed in this module have a global impact and are of extreme importance in both developing and developed world.

Programmes this module appears in

Programme Semester Classification Qualifying conditions
Veterinary Medicine and Science BVMSci (Hons) 2 Compulsory A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module

Please note that the information detailed within this record is accurate at the time of publishing and may be subject to change. This record contains information for the most up to date version of the programme / module for the 2024/5 academic year.